Mobile Systems and Analytics

The content in this webpage complements the paper “Coverage and Deployment Analysis of Narrowband Internet of Things in the Wild”, for which a preprint version can be found here: https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.02341. The paper is currently under revision in IEEE Communications Magazine (Internet of Things and Sensor Networks Series). The complete dataset will be made available soon.

For the NB-IoT measurements in Oslo and Rome, we used the Rohde&Schwarz (R&S) TSMA6 toolkit, together with an Exelonix Narrowband (NB) USB device and a global position-ing system (GPS) antenna.

A description of the dataset attributes is available below:

Coverage

**Available for LTE and NB-IoT:**

**Date, Time, UTC:**Timestamp**Latitude, Longitude, Altitude:**GPS coordinates**Speed:**Moving speed**Heading:**Movement direction (if available)**X.Sat:**Number of available GPS satellites**TAC:**Tracking Area Code**EARFCN, Frequency:**Carrier frequency identifiers**(anonymized)****MCC,****MNC:**Operators identifiers at country level**(anonymized)****eNodeB.ID, (N)PCI, CI, cellID:**Numerical identifiers for E-UTRAN Node Bs (eNBs) and cells**(anonymized if unique)**

**Available for LTE:**

**BW:**Bandwidth [MHz]**SymPerSlot:**Number of symbols per slot (depends on the use of normal vs. extended OFDM cyclic prefix)**Power:**Power received on the entire BW [dBm]**SINR:**Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise Ratio [dB]**RSRP:**Reference Signal Received Power [dBm]**RSRQ:**Reference Signal Received Quality [dB]**X4G.Drift:**Time offset between cell and scanner [ns]**Sigma.4G.Drift:**Standard Deviation on X4G.Drift**TimeOfArrival:**Time of Arrival (ToA) from cell to scanner [s]**TimeOfArrivalFN:**ToA Frame Number (FN). It allows to report TimeOfArrival on an absolute time scale, ToA_abs = TimeOfArrival + TimeOfArrivalFN * 10 [ms]

**Available for NB-IoT:**

**NSINR.Tx0, NSINR.Tx1:**Narrowband SINR for antenna ports Tx0 and Tx1 [dB]**NRSRP.Tx0, NRSRP.Tx1:**Narrowband RSRP for antenna ports Tx0 and Tx1 [dBm]**NRSRQ.Tx0, NRSRQ.Tx1:**Narrowband RSRQ for antenna ports Tx0 and Tx1 [dB]**RSSI.Tx0, RSSI.Tx1:**Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) for antenna ports Tx0 and Tx1 [dBm]**NSSS.Power:**Narrowband Secondary Synchronization Signal (NSSS) Power [dBm]**NSSS.RSSI:**NSSS RSSI [dBm]**NSSS.CINR:**NSSS Carrier-to-Interference-plus-Noise Ratio [dB]

eNBs and cells

**Name:**eNB name (combines**eNodeB.ID**and**PhyCellID**)**Latitude, Longitude:**Cell GPS coordinates**PosErrorDirection:**Cell directional error**PosErrorLambda1, PosErrorLambda2:**Cell longitudinal and latitudinal positioning errors**IsDirected:**Binary indication, omnidirectional (0) vs. directional (1) cell**Direction**: Direction identifier**Power:**Cell Power read by the scanner when the cell position estimation is finalised [dBm]**MaxPowerUsedForTowerEstimationbyPE:**maximum value of the cell received power used to estimate the cell location [dBm]**TowerID:**Tower identifier**MCC, MNC:**Operators identifiers at country level**(anonymized)****TAC:**Tracking Area Code**PhyCellID, CellIdentity**: Numerical identifiers for cells**(anonymized if unique)****EARFCN:**Carrier frequency**(anonymized)**

A sample of the dataset consisting of one complete sub-campaign collected in Outdoor Driving (OD) scenario is available below:

** Paper Figure 1:** Scatterplot between average distance to the eNB with highest RSRP and average distance to the nearest eNB for Op_1,N (left) and Op_2,N (right). Different colors represent different scenarios.

** Paper Figure 2:** Sub-campaign average coverage in terms of RSRP [dBm], grouped by scenario and divided by a combination of operator (Op_1,N, Op_2,N) and technology (LTE, NB-IoT).

To enforce and validate the above result, we perform additional statistical significance tests to pinpoint differences between the means of the distributions. We examine the following use cases.

For a given scenario and technology, we show if there is significant difference between the two operators.*Operator Comparison:*For a given scenario and operator, we show if there is significant difference between the two technologies.*Technology Comparison:*For a given operator and technology, we show if there is significant difference between any combination of the four scenarios.**Scenario Comparison**:

- We perform the
**Kruskal-Wallis**non-parametric analysis of variance test to assess whether data comes from the same distribution. For the scenario comparison, since we have more than two groups, we also leverage the**Dunn’s test**that is used to identify significant difference between the means of two or more distributions for a given confidence interval.

There is no significant difference between the two distributions*Null Hypothesis:*There is significant difference between the two distributions.*Alternative Hypothesis:*

- We report the p-values below —
*Significant codes:*‘*’**0.05**, ‘**’**0.01**, ‘***’**0.001**

Technology | DI | I | OW | OD |

LTE | 0.2906 | 0.0274 * | 0.2480 | 0.3581 |

NB-IoT | 0.1594 | 0.00033 *** | 0.1152 | 0.1439 |

Operator | DI | I | OW | OD |

1 | 0.0021 ** | 2.3e-09 *** | 0.0117 * | 1e-05 *** |

2 | 0.0133 * | 1e-06 *** | 0.00078 *** | 1e-05 *** |

Technology/Operator | DI-I | DI-OW | DI-OD | I-OW | I-OD | OW-OD |

LTE/1 | 4.8e-08 *** | 6.4e-06 *** | 0.00041 *** | 0.36033 | 0.30055 | 0.17261 |

LTE/2 | 5.7e-07 *** | 6.4e-06 *** | 3.6e-06 *** | 0.3686 | 0.5752 | 0.6063 |

NB-IoT/1 | 5.7e-07 *** | 3.1e-05 *** | 3.1e-06 *** | 0.5299 | 0.5299 | 0.9434 |

NB-IoT/2 | 3.1e-06 *** | 1.1e-06 *** | 1.6e-07 *** | 0.0492 * | 0.0442 * | 0.8244 |

** Complementary Figure 1:** Network topology scenario for the in-band vs guard-band comparative analysis.

** Paper Figure 3:** Network deployment performance evaluation in terms of RSRP [dBm] for the in-band Op_1,I deployments.

** Complementary Figure 2:** Network deployment performance evaluation in terms of RSRP [dBm] for the guard-band Op_2,I deployments.

Likewise, we follow up with the statistical analysis by leveraging the **Kruskal-Wallis** test. We examine the following scenario

For a given operator and R, we show if there is significant difference between any combination of the two technologies.**Technology Comparison**:

We report the p-values below — *Significant codes:* ‘*’ **0.05** , ‘**’ **0.01**, ‘***’ **0.001**

Operator | 100 | 200 | 300 | 400 | 500 |

1 | 3.8e-10 *** | <2e-16 *** | <2e-16 *** | 8.6e-07 *** | 0.0683 |

2 | 0.7554 | 0.0668 | 0.0169 * | 0.7474 | 0.9627 |

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