IoT Traffic Offloading with MPTCP

The content in this webpage complements the paper “IoT Traffic Offloading with MPTCP”. The paper is under revision in IEEE Communications Magazine (Transport Layer Innovations for Future Networks).


The concept of a fully connected world in the fifth-generation (5G) technology envisions the massive roll-out of small and constrained Internet of Things (IoT) devices. In such IoT environments, Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications is key allowing these devices (e.g., sensors, actuators, smart meters/monitors) to collect data towards a remote server.
We address this particular scenario by building and evaluating an IoT multi-access reference architecture, with a Multipath TCP (MPTCP) gateway connected to multiple cellular networks to offload M2M data traffic. Experimental results from CoAP-emulated traffic indicate that the our proposed system together with the benefits of MPTCP improve IoT application performance. More specifically, multipath-based M2M data traffic offloading increases throughput and significantly reduces latency of CoAP requests as the number of networks sensors increases.

MultiPath Proxy Description

To run the experiments, a lightweight gateway based on the System-On-a-Module (SoM) hardware / software architecture developed by Tecsys do Brasil was used.

The block diagram and pictures of the MultiPath Proxy are shown in Figure. The main hardware components are described in Table below. The MPP node has modular communication capabilities, where heterogeneous transmission terminologies can be enabled from six backplane interface slots available over the USB 2.0 bus. In addition, there are more six homogeneous network interfaces from Ethernet ports. For run the experiments we are using 3 4G modems, using operational networks Vivo, Tim, and Claro.

MPP hardware Components
Architecture of Operational System of MPP node

This picture illustrates the MPP node architecture, highlighting(magenta) the fundamental resources used to implement the CMT transmission solution.

Experimental Environment

Network topology used to environment experimental

The implemented experimental environment, from the topology point of view, consists of three main nodes, as shown in the Figure, the concentrator node C, the MPP node and the remote S server. Node C is connected point-to-point to the MPP. In the scenarios considered in this work, the MPP node is enabled with up to three 4G modems, which connects it to the Internet. The server, assuming a typical server in the cloud, has only one interface in its access network, although it can be equipped with more interfaces, since it is an MPTCP node. Details of the hardware and software components of the nodes are described below.

  • Concentrator:ASUS S46C Intel Core i7-dual 2,00 GHz 4 MB, 8 GB de RAM and HD 1TB
  • Server: DELL Intel Core i5-quad 3.20 GHz 6 MB cache, 8 GB de RAM and 1 TB
  • Link C-MPP:  Gigabit Ethernet
  • Link S-Internet: 200 Mbps
  • Operational System: Linux Ubuntu 18.04 LTS
  • MPTCP: Version 0.95, Congestion Control OLIA, Path Manager FullMesh and Scheduler minRTT

Experimental Parameters

The following parameters were used to run the experiments:

  • Forwarding approaches: CoAP/UDP and CoAP/TCP
  • Payload sizes: 4, 16 and 64 Bytes
  • Number of sensors:  250, 500, 1000, and 2000
  • Operational networks: Vivo, Tim and Claro
  • Periods of the day: 8am~11am and 14pm~17pm
  • Number of request-response per sensor: 400

Supplementary Results

Coap TCP with 1000 sensors and 3x 4G networks
Coap TCP with 2000 sensors and 3x 4G networks

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